Wednesday, September 2, 2020

Aid in dying or physician assisted suicide Research Paper

Help in kicking the bucket or doctor helped self destruction - Research Paper Example The individuals who have picked to take an impartial stand accept that while doctor helped self destruction might be unscrupulous now and again; there are sure cases that may warrant the specialist to make the vital move to end the life of their patient. This is particularly in situations where the patient himself requests that a specialist takes his life since it has become horrendous in view of the torment they are suffering in their terminal disease. The legitimate and good discussion is presently going on and it appears that the stands that have been taken on the contrary sides of the discussion will be accommodated at any point in the near future. A short conversation of the issues engaged with doctor helped self destruction should be talked about so as to think of a reasonable stand concerning the issue. Foundation There have created solid contentions concerning the extricating of the lawful imperatives that keep specialists from controlling doctor helped self destruction to th eir patients. Overviews that have been directed as of late have indicated that numerous individuals of the United States are agreeable to the authorization of this practice.1 Those restricted to it are the traditionalist components of the general public, for example, strict individuals just as good preservationists who will in general compare the training to kill. It ought to anyway be understood that some type of legitimization of the training is in the end going to be made in light of the fact that numerous individuals will in all probability desert directions concerning their being helped to kick the bucket on the off chance that something genuine transpires. It will not, at this point matter what the administration and preservationists components in the public eye should state in light of the fact that the desires of people will no doubt be put first. There has, as of late been a high predominance in the quantity of individuals who have made solicitations to their PCPs to have h elp with self destruction. The specialists need to consider this troublesome solicitation in view of the legitimate and moral repercussions of the practice.2 It can securely be said that there is a high probability that numerous specialists agree to the interest of their patients, albeit subtly, and help them in taking their lives. In spite of it being unlawful, particularly in the United States, the conceivable outcomes of doctor helped suicides occurring in the nation are very high. Such acts are in all likelihood going to constrain the legitimization of helped suicides so the administration can have some proportion of authority over it. Examination Among the contentions that have been made concerning the restricting of doctor, helped self destruction is that it isn't right according to God. The best resistance to the legitimization of this training has originated from the strict foundation and strict writings and conclusions have been utilized to legitimize its stand. It has been expressed that solitary God has a definitive capacity to remove life, and that specialists who help their patients in biting the dust are submitting a sin.3 This contention has been unequivocally countered by backers of doctor helped self destruction, who have expressed that God isn't detached to the point that he permits individuals to endure monstrous agony. Rather, they have contended that God has given people the information and the capacity to dispose of agony, and that among the implies that God has given is that of doctors helping their patients to get a

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Applied Psychological Perspectives Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Applied Psychological Perspectives - Essay Example From this paper plainly numerous representatives build up a specific measure of dread that individuals are gazing at them and are less open to the degree of analysis they are plausible to look at their work anytime of time. Obviously, different evaluations directed assistance in helping people as per their territory of battle giving normal inputs. These procedures upgrade their capacity to build up their relational abilities and even improve capacities to communicate at the various phases of their workplace. Moreover, this even encourages the representatives to meet with the necessities of their significant level of uneasiness or distress that they face during correspondence or creating relational discussion among peers. The perception of building up the relational correspondence altogether helps and individual to layout their quality and shortcoming. Building up the setting of relational correspondence will fundamentally permit successful correspondence in the midst of people in any event, when they have a place from various social or ethnic foundation.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Leadership Reform

Question: Points: Country essential consideration doctors and colleagues of doctors encounters checks while executing EHRs at provincial essential consideration facilities. This examination manages this subject. The information that they gain: Scatter information on EHR innovation through the evacuation of boundaries Take choices on provincial PCPs. Change arrangements and plan ventures Mange relationship with partners I have investigated the country PCPs execution of EHR framework through a subjective and phenomenological plan. Research Question: The exploration questions incorporate the accompanying: What the essential consideration doctors and their aides have confronted? Their opinion of complex versatile frameworks while attempting to recuperate the issue of actualizing electronic wellbeing records? Answer: Point centrality: As per Adams Gaetane (2011) Business people group may improve from the result of the exploration and it might impact country essential centers to receive the electronic wellbeing records. Through a subjective research holes will be filled, writing will be expanded and the structure of future research gave in it will build the extent of further research. It will be helpful in strategic policies, procedures and arrangements. Commitment to Business practice: As talked about in Sheffield Haslett et al (2012), through a subjective and phenomenological look into, there will be an arrangement of away from of how to defeat the obstructions and that excessively from the point of view of the rustic PCPs and their associates. The partners of rustic essential consideration centers will get data about what impacts the dynamic driving towards an effective usage of EHR. As indicated by Mechanic (2008), it will profit by low social insurance cost despite the fact that the nature of treatment will build It will energize usage and selection of EHR in HIT field and create effective minimal effort human services benefits that will result into a practical business. Suggestions for Social change In view of the exploration, the PCPs and country essential consideration centers may endeavor to work autonomously with no help from government. As indicated by Adler-Milstein Bates (2010) the effect will prompt imaginative and productive medicinal services framework to satisfy the requests of expanded future just as decreased assets. An expanded pace of EHR execution will usher a social change. Foundation As indicated by Channon et al (2012) numerous nations including Indian Government has impacted the specialists, medical caretakers, clinics and insurance agencies to utilize ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) for development of subjective human services offices that will lessen the medicinal services cost. Electronic Health Record (EHRs) is one such utilization of ICT by numerous nations. As indicated by Goldberg (2012), in most recent couple of years, Indias human services office has developed in quality and amount with Private divisions putting resources into social insurance part and consequently making it into one of the essential supporters of Indias GDP. EHR is a need of country India in view of the accompanying: Precise and moment data for the patients Empower access of interface, for example, telehealth to think about clinicians, staff individuals, and drug specialists. Different offices not gave locally Help the rustic human services associations to give viable neighborhood care and this is reasonable Offers proficient claim to fame referrals Legislature of India has set a few standards for EHR in the year 2013. Service of Health and family Welfare requested the foundation of EHR gauges panel, who suggested the rules. For its sake, Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry oversees it. The rules make it sure that every single clinical datum is effectively accessible and compact. This undertaking is risky as just 160 million individuals use web. The obstructions are Restricted access to framework and capital Reasonable items for rustic human services Trouble in utilizing broadband association Trouble in procuring network purchase in Constrained extension to work together with provincial partners Confined purchase in from rustic human services or emergency clinics staff with diverse employment Reference Adams, C.M. what's more, Jean-Marie, G., 2011. A dissemination way to deal with study initiative reform.Journal of Educational Administration,49(4), pp.354-377. Adler-Milstein, J. what's more, Bates, D.W., 2010. Paperless social insurance: Progress and difficulties of an IT-empowered human services system.Business Horizons,53(2), pp.119-130. Brahmer, J.R., Tykodi, S.S., Chow, L.Q., Hwu, W.J., Topalian, S.L., Hwu, P., Drake, C.G., Camacho, L.H., Kauh, J., Odunsi, K. what's more, Pitot, H.C., 2012. Security and action of antiPD-L1 counter acting agent in patients with cutting edge cancer.New England Journal of Medicine,366(26), pp.2455-2465. Lazarus, J.H., Bestwick, J.P., Channon, S., Paradice, R., Maina, A., Rees, R., Chiusano, E., John, R., Guaraldo, V., George, L.M. what's more, Perona, M., 2012. Antenatal thyroid screening and youth psychological function.New England Journal of Medicine,366(6), pp.493-501. Specialist, D. what's more, McAlpine, D.D., 2010. Human science of Health Care Reform Building on Research and Analysis to Improve Health Care.Journal of Health and Social Behavior,51(1 suppl), pp.S147-S159. Sheffield, J., Sankaran, S. also, Haslett, T., 2012. Frameworks thinking: subduing multifaceted nature in venture management.On the Horizon,20(2), pp.126-136.

Monday, June 1, 2020

Procesem przebiegajacym w czasie - Free Essay Example

Wstep 1 Introduction Rozwj zawodowy jest procesem przebiegajacym w czasie w ramach oglnego rozwoju czlowieka. Professional development is the process on time, within the overall human development. Realizacja wszystkich potencjalnych mozliwosci wynika z naturalnego popedu do rozwoju, do wzrostu, do osiagniecia swojej pelni. Implementation of all potential opportunities due to the natural impulse to development, to growth, to achieve its full. Teorie rozwoju zawodowego podkreslaja,ze ten proces rozpoczyna siew dziecinstwie i trwa do wieku dojrzalego, a jest ciagiem decyzji uwarunkowanych rznymi czynnikami w tym biologicznymi, psychologicznymi, ekonomicznymi a takze spolecznymi. Theories of professional development emphasize that this process begins in childhood and continues into adulthood, and is a sequence of decisions conditioned by various factors including the biological, psychological, economic and social. Na temat rozwoju zawodowego jest wiele pogladw, przy czym na uwagezaslugujate, ktre dotyczacech, satysfakcji, potrzeb, wydatkowania energii, wyboru i decyzji a takze zachowan zawodowych, ciaglosci zawodowej oraz miejsca i przestrzeni. On the professional development of many ideas, but they deserve attention, which relate to the characteristics, satisfaction, needs, energy expenditure, choice and decision behavior and professional lives, and the continuity of place and space. Okreslenie rozwoju zawodowego w oparciu o wieloletnie badania podaje K. Czarnecki jako spolecznie pozadany proces przemian kierunkowych jednostki ( ilosciowych i jakosciowych, ktre warunkuja jej aktywny i spolecznie oczekiwany udzial w przeksztalcaniu oraz doskonaleniu samego siebie i przez to swojego otoczenia materialnego, spolecznego i kulturowego. Determination of professional development based on long-term study gives K. Czarnecki, as socially desirable transition process directional unit (quantitative and qualitative, which condition the expected active and socially involved in the transformation and improvement of himself and his environment through the physical, social and cultural development. Istota zachowanw warunkach wymogwi zadan zawodowych dotyczy zbioru regul przeksztalcania ukladu czlowiek-praca i okresleniu ich wplywu na przebieg rozwoju czlowieka i sukces zawodowy, ktrego miara jest indywidualnie pojmowana satysfakcja. The essence of behavior in terms of professional requirements and duties applicable to a set of rules for transforming the human-work and identify their influence on the course of human development and professional success, a measure of satisfaction is individually conceived. Zyjemy w czasach kultu fachowosci tzw. We live in a cult called professionalism. profesjonalizmu i gospodarki rynkowej, racje spoleczne i osobiste przemawiaja wiec aby zdobywac wysokie kwalifikacje zawodowe oraz zabiegac o szanse rozwoju dla siebie i innych. professionalism and a market economy, social and personal reasons so to speak earn high professional qualifications and seek a development opportunity for themselves and others. Wszystkie teorie rozwoju zawodowego starajasiewytlumaczyc, dlaczego ludzie dokonujaokreslonych wyborw zawodowych, przy czym w literaturze pojawily sie dopiero w latach piecdziesiatych , choc juz na poczatku XX wieku Frank Parson opisal proces wyboru kariery zawodowej. Career development theories seek to explain why people make certain career choices, and in the literature appeared only in the fifties, although at the beginning of the twentieth century, Frank Parsons described the process of career choice. Oglna charakterystyka glwnych teorii rozwoju zawodowego 2 General characteristics of the major theories of professional development Teoria cech i czynnikw The theory of characteristics and factors Teoria cech i czynnikw podkresla odrebnosc i wyjatkowosc kazdego czlowieka. The theory of characteristics and factors emphasizes the separateness and uniqueness of each person. Pierwsi jej zwolennicy zakladali, ze zdolnosci i cechy poszczeglnych osb mozna zmierzyc w sposb obiektywny, a nastepnie skwantyfikowac. The first of its proponents assume that the capacity and characteristics of individuals can be measured objectively, and then quantified. Stopien osobistej motywacji uznany byl zawartosc wzglednie stala, dlatego tez satysfakcja plynaca z wykonywania danego zawodu zalezala od odpowiedniego dopasowania zdolnosci jednostki do wymagan na danym stanowisku. The degree of personal motivation was recognized at a relatively constant content, and therefore the satisfaction that comes from practicing the profession depend on the ability of an appropriate size to the requirements of the job. W swej wsplczesnej formie teoria cech i czynnikw podkresla interpersonalny charakter kariery zawodowej i zwiazany z niastyl zycia, ktry warunkuja: rodzina, zagadnienia etyczne, religijne, srodowisko spoleczne i przyjemnosci. In its modern form factors and features of the theory stresses the interpersonal nature of careers and the associated lifestyle, which is conditioned by family, ethical, religious, social environment and leisure. Wyrznia sieszesc kategorii, przy pomocy ktrych mozna dokonacklasyfikacji rodzajw osobowosci i srodowiska pracy : realistyczna, badawczaartystyczna, spoleczna, przedsiebiorczai konwencjonalna. There are six categories by which you can classify the types of personality and work environment: a realistic, artistic research, social, enterprising and conventional. Satysfakcja z wykonywania konkretnej pracy zalezy od stopnia zaleznosci typu osobowosci i srodowiska pracy. Satisfaction with the performance of a particular work depends on the degree of dependence on the type of personality and work environment. Przykladowo, osoba o osobowosci typu artystycznego nie bedzie najprawdopodobniej pasowala do zawodu konwencjonalnego, takiego jak na przyklad kierownik biura. For example, a person with the personality type of art is not likely to fit into a conventional profession, such as, for example, an office manager. Istnieja wyjatki. There are exceptions. Prawdopodobnym jest, przyjmowania pewnych stanowisk i pozostawanie na nich tlumacza pewne czynniki niepsychologiczne, np. ekonomiczne, spoleczne czy kulturowe. Jednak dla pojecia swiadomych decyzji zawodowych istotne jest posiadanie odpowiedniej wiedzy o sobie samym oraz wymogach zawodowych Is likely to adopt certain positions and staying on them niepsychologiczne explain certain factors such as eco nomic, social or cultural. However, the concept of informed decision-making professional is essential to have adequate knowledge about himself and the requirements of professional Za twrcepodstaw teorii cech i czynnikw uznacmozna Franka Parsona, wsplczesnie zastwrczo rozwinal jaHolland. As the founder of the theory of characteristics and factors that can be seen by Frank Parsons, contemporary and creatively developed by Holland. Teoria ta podkresla skojarzenie jednostki z praca, ktra odpowiada jej uzdolnieniom. This theory emphasizes the combination of units of work that corresponds to her talents. Holland wyrznia szesc kategorii, przy pomocy ktrych mozna dokonacklasyfikacji osobowosci i srodowiska pracy. Holland distinguishes six categories by which you can make the classification of personality and work environment. Sato typy: These are the types: realistyczny wykwalifikowany, konkretny, uzdolniony technicznie, mechanicznie (np. inzynier, mechanik, rolnik), realistic skilled, practical, technically gifted, mechanical (eg, engineer, mechanic, farmer) konwencjonalny zorganizowany, praktyczny, ulegly (np. ksiegowy, kasjer, pracownik biurowy), conventional an organized, practical, compliant (eg, accountant, cashier, office worker), przedsiebiorczy przekonywujacy, otwarty, werbalny (np. akwizytor, zarzadzajacy, przedsiebiorca), enterprising convincing, open, verbal (eg, traveling agent, manager, entrepreneur) badajacy naukowy, abstrakcyjny, analityczny (np. badacz, programista komputerowy, technik laboratoryjny), Examination a scientific abstract, analytical (eg, researcher, computer programmer, lab technician) artystyczny twrczy, o rozwinietej wyobrazni i estetyce (np. muzyk, malarz, pisarz) Artistic creative, with a developed imagination and aesthetics (eg, musician, painter, writer) spoleczny oswiatowy, zorientowany na uslugi, nawiazujacy kontakty z ludzmi (np. dozorca, nauczyciel, pielegniarka). social educational, service-oriented, referring to people contacts (eg, janitor, teacher, nurse). Teoria psychodynamiczna Psychodynamic theory Teoria ta najlepiej udokumentowana jest w pracach Anne Roe i Roberta Hoppocka. This theory is best documented in the work of Anne Roe and Robert Hoppocka. Roe sadzi, ze zainteresowania zawodowe rozwijajasiew wyniku interakcji miedzy doroslymi a dziecmi. Roe believes that a professional interest developed as a result of interaction between adults and children. Potrzeby zawodowe stanowia odzwierciedlenie checi realizacji potrzeb nie zaspokojonych przez rodzicw w okresie dziecinstwa. Reflect the needs of professional willingness to meet the needs of not zaspokojonych by parents during childhood. Z psychodynamicznego punktu widzenia lata wczesnego dziecinstwa wywieraja decydujacy wplyw na cale zycie jednostki. From the point of view psychodynamicznego early childhood years have a decisive influence on the life of the individual. Dlatego tez Roe uwaza, ze okres ten jest zrdlem nieswiadomej motywacji, wplywajacej na taki wybr zawodu, ktry umozliwilby wyrazenie i zaspokojenie owych potrzeb. Therefore, Roe believes that this period is a source of unconscious motivation, affecting the choice of a profession that would allow the expression and satisfaction of those needs. Roe opisala trzy rodzaje relacji rodzice/dziecko: Roe described the three types of relations between parents / children: emocjonalne ukierunkowanie na dziecko relacja ta moze przybrac jedna z dwch form nadopiekunczosc, kiedy rodzice robia dla dziecka zbyt wiele iw ten sposb naklaniaja je do uleglosci i zaleznosci, lub wygrowane wymagania, kiedy rodzice podkreslaja wage osiagniec dziecka. emotional focus on children the relationship may take one of two forms of overprotection, when parents do for a child too much and thus induce them to submissiveness and dependency, or excessive requirements, when parents emphasize the importance of the achievements of the child. Dzieci wychowywane w tego typu relacji na ogl odczuwaja potrzebe ciaglego uzyskiwania informacji zwrotnych i nagrd. Children raised in such relationships usually feel the need for a continuous feedback and rewards. Jako dorosli wybieraja czesto zawody, ktre zapewniaja uznanie ze strony innych, jak na przyklad dzialalnosc artystyczna. As adults often choose occupations that offer appreciation from others, such as art work. unikanie dziecka w jej ramach takze mozna wyrznic dwie formy: lekcewazenie dziecka, kiedy rodzice staraja sie zaspokoic potrzeby dziecka jedynie w bardzo ograniczony sposb i odrzucenie dziecka, kiedy rodzice nie podejmuja zadnych wysilkw zaspokojenia potrzeb potomstwa. avoidance of a child under it also can be divided into two forms: neglect of the child when parents are trying to meet the needs of the child only a very limited way, and the rejection of the child when parents do not take any effort to meet the needs of children. Roe uwaza, ze jednostki tak wychowane wybiora kariery naukowe lub techniczne iw ten sposb dazyc beda do osiagniecia satysfakcji zyciowej. Chetnie zajmuja sie one rzeczami i koncepcjami. Roe believes that such educated individuals will choose a technical or scientific careers, and thus will seek to achieve life satisfaction. We deal with these things and concepts. akceptacja dziecka moze miec charakter dorazny lub bardziej opiekunczy: w obu przypadkach wspiera niezaleznosc dziecka. acceptance of the child may be either temporary or more care: in both cases supports the independence of the child. Dzieci z takich rodzin na ogl szukaja zawodw, ktre lacza osobiste i niepersonalne aspekty zycia, jak np. Children from such families are generally looking for jobs that combine personal and niepersonalne aspects of life, such as uczenie czy doradztwo. teaching or counseling. Teoria rozwoju Theory Development Dwie najbardziej znane teorie oparte na koncepcji rozwoju osobistego wiazasiez nazwiskami Donalda Supera i Eli Ginzberga. The two most well known theories based on the concept of personal development associated with the names of Donald Super and Eli Ginzberg. W porwnaniu z innymi teoriami, podejscia rozwojowe sana oglbardziej wszechstronne, przywiazujawiekszawagedo zachowanzwiazanych z kariera zawodowa rozciagnietymi w czasie oraz wskazuja na istotna role koncepcji na samego siebie. In comparison with other theories, developmental approaches tend to be more comprehensive, attach greater importance to the behavior of career rozciagnietymi in time and indicate the important role the concept of self. Wedlug tej teorii rozwj zawodowy to proces wdrazania obrazu samego siebie. According to this theory, professional development is the process of implementation of the image itself. Poglady ludzi na to, kim sazostajaodzwierciedlone w tym co robia. The views of people of who are are reflected in what they are doing. Kazdy czlowiek w rozwoju zawodowym przechodzi piec etapw, przy czym dla kazdego z nich wyrznic mozna zadanie rozwojowe, ktre musi zostac zrealizowane. Everyone in the professional development goes five stages, with each of them can be distinguished developmental task that must be met. wzrost (od urodzenia do 14 roku zycia) na tym etapie, ktry dzieli sie na podetapy fantazji (wiek 4 10 lat), zainteresowan (wiek 11 12 lat) i mozliwosci (wiek 13 14 lat), dziecko wytwarza mentalny obraz siebie w relacji z innymi ludzmi. growth (from birth to 14 years) at this stage, which is divided into podetapy fantasy (ages 4 10 years), interest (Age 11 12 years) and opportunities (Age 13 14), produces a mental image of a child themselves in relationships with other people. W trakcie procesu wzrostu dziecko zyskuje takze orientacje w swiecie pracy. In the process of child growth and gains in the world of work orientations. poszukiwania (wiek 15-24 lat) dzieli sie on na trzy czesci: wstepny (wiek 15 17 lat), przejsciowy (wiek 18 -21 lat), oraz etap prb (wiek 22 24 lat). exploration (age 15-24) It is divided into three parts: the initial (age 15 17 years), transition (ages 18 -21 years), and the stage of testing (age 22 24 years). Glwnym zadaniem na tym etapie jest zbadanie swiata pracy i ustalenie preferencji zawodowych. The main task at this stage is to explore the world of work and establish occupational preferences. zajecie pozycji (establishment) (wiek 25 44 lat) dzieli sie on na dwa dalsze etapy, etap prb (25 30 lat) oraz zdobywania (wiek 31-44 lat), iw ich trakcie realizowac nalezy zadanie zajecia pozycji w preferowanym i odpowiednim polu zawodowym. Gdy pozycja ta jest juz zapewniona, jednostka moze skoncentrowac sie na zdobywaniu coraz lepszych pozycji, az do momentu osiagniecia maksymalnej pozycji w danym zawodzie. to gain a foothold (establishment) (age 25 44 years) divided it into two further phases, phase tests (25 30 years), and acquisition (age 31-44 years), and during the task should be implemented to address the position in the preferred and appropriate professional field. If this position is already assured, the body can concentrate on acquiring more and better positions, until a maximum position in the profession. utrzymanie (wiek 45 64 lat) , w ramach ktrego glwnym zadaniem jest utrzymanie tego, co zostalo juz osiagniete. maintenance (age of 45 64 years), in which the main task is to maintain what has already been achieved. odchodzenie (wiek 65 lat do smierci), jest czasem uwalniania sie od pracy i znalezienia innych zrdel satysfakcji. leave (the age of 65 until his death), is a time release from work and find other sources of satisfaction. Dzieli sie on na dwa etapy: spowolnienie (wiek 65 70 lat) i odpoczynek (wiek 71 lat do smierci). It is divided into two stages: slow (the age of 65 70 years) and leisure (age 71 years until his death). Teorie kognitywne i nauki spolecznej Theories of cognitive and social science Teorie rozwoju kariery zawodowej oparte na modelu kognitywnym i nauki spolecznej zostaly sformulowane w latach szescdziesiatych. Theories of career development model based on cognitive and social science have been formulated in the sixties. Dwa sposrd najbardziej znanych modeli kognitywnych majatakze podstawy w modelu rozwoju, przy czym Tiedeman i jego wsplpracownicy oparli sie na modelu rozwoju kryzysw Erica Eriksona, ktra uwzglednia w szerokim znaczeniu wplyw dojrzewania biologicznego i oddzialywanie otoczenia spolecznego (w tym matki, ojca i innych osb z najblizszego kregu rodzinnego) we wzajemnych powiazaniach na rozwj psychiczny dziecka i bieg rozwojowy zycia zawodowego. Two of the best known cognitive models also have a base model of development, with Tiedemann and his colleagues relied on a model of development crises Eric Erikson, which takes into account the broad sense of the impact of biological aging and the impact of social environment (including mother, father and other people with the closest family circle) in their relationship to the childs psychological development and life course development. Czlowiek wedlug tej teorii przechodzi przez osiem stadiw rozwojowych , a wraz z nimi przez osiem kryzysw, od ktrych rozwiazania zaleza cechy jego osobowosci w przyszlosci. Pierwsze cztery stadia wystepuja w okresie niemowlecym, wczesnym dziecinstwie, w wieku zabaw i mlodszym wieku szkolnym, piate stadium w okresie dojrzewania, natomiast ostatnie trzy stadia wypadaja na wiek dojrzaly oraz starosc. According to this theory, a man goes through eight stages of development, and with them for eight crises, from which a solution depend on the characteristics of his personality in the future. The first four stages occur during infancy, early childhood, play age and younger school age, the fifth stage of the puberty, while the last three stages fit into adulthood and old age. Szczeglne znaczenie ma stadium piate tj. okres dojrzewania, gdyz wwczas nastepuje przejscie z okresu dziecinstwa do dojrzalosci i ma to wplyw na rozwj osobowosci i przebieg kolejnych okresw rozwoju zawodowego czlowieka. Of particular importance is the fifth stage of puberty, ie, as the following passage from childhood to adulthood and have an impact on personality development and course of subsequent professional development of man. W tym stadium zaczyna formowac sie poczucie wlasnej tozsamosci, zas u osb majacych trudnosci w tym procesie moga wystapic trudnosci z podjeciem trafnych decyzji zawodowych. At this stage begin to form their own sense of identity, and in people having difficulties in this process may have difficulty making informed decisions unions. Wystepuje tu siedmio etapowy model podejmowania decyzji zawodowych: badanie (wiek 14 18 lat), krystalizacja (wiek 18 21 lat), wybr (wiek 18 25 lat), wyjasnianie (wiek 18 25 lat), indukcja (wiek 21 30 lat), zmiana (wiek 21 -30 lat), oraz integracja (wiek 30 40 lat). There is an seven consecutive model of professional decision-making: the study (age 14 18 years), crystallization (age 18 21 years), selection (age 18 25 years), explain (age 18 25 years), induction (age 21 30 years), change (age 21 -30 years), and integration (the age of 30 40 years). Etapy te zachodzana siebie, lecz w ramach kazdego z nich jednostka musi podejmowacdecyzje. These stages overlap, but in the context of each individual must make decisions. Nacisk na kognitywna restrukturyzacje jednostki od wewnatrz do zewnatrz stanowi szczeglny wklad Tiedemana w teorie kariery zawodowej. Emphasis on cognitive restructuring of the unit from the inside to outside is a special contribution to the theory Tiedeman career. Autorem innego podejscia rwnie szerokiego, chocmniejszawageprzywiazujacego do kategorii rozwoju i socjalizacji, byl Kromboltz. The author of a new approach as a broad, though less weight przywiazujacego the category of development and socialization, was Kromboltz. Zgodnie z jego stanowiskiem na decyzje zawodowe czlowieka wplywaja cztery czynniki : ladunek genetyczny, warunki i wydarzenia w otaczajacym srodowisku, doswiadczenia w procesie nauki oraz umiejetnosci podchodzenia do zadan (np. system wartosci, nawyki w pracy). According to its position on the human influence professional decisions of four factors: the genetic load, the conditions and events in the surrounding environment, experience in the process of learning and skills approach to tasks (eg, a system of values, work habits). Wedlug Krumboltza, na decyzje zawodowe wplywaja zarwno procesy wewnetrzne jak i zewnetrzne. According Krumboltza, professional decisions affect both internal processes and external. Innymi slowy, jedn ostka posiada pewien wplyw na wydarzenia, ktre uwaza za dzialajace na nia wspierajaco. In other words, the body has a certain influence on events, which are considered as acting on it wspierajaco. Charakterystyka teorii rozwoju zawodowego DE Supera 3 Characteristics of the theory of professional development DE Supera PoprawionawersjeDE Super opublikowalw 1957 r. Zawiera ona 12 twierdzen, ktre charakteryzujarozwj zawodowy czlowieka. Super ED revised version published in 1957, it contains 12 statements that characterize the professional development of man. Rozwj zawodowy jest postepujacym, ciaglym i zwykle nieodwracalny procesem Professional development is a progressive, permanent and usually irreversible process Rozwj zawodowy jest wzorcowym i nieodwracalnym procesem. Professional development is a model and an irreversible process. Celem rozwoju zawodowego jest wiec wybr zawodu, ktrego kryteria oparte sa na tych samych zasadach dla wszystkich jednostek The purpose of professional development is therefore the choice of profession, the criteria are based on the same basis to all individuals Rozwj zawodowy jest procesem zawodowym. Professional development is a process of training. Cecha ta wskazuje na zwiazek miedzy dotychczasowym repertuarem zachowan jednostki a zadaniami, ktre musza byc wykonywane przez nia, a zawieraja nowe wzory, ktre sa prezentowane jednostce. This feature shows the relationship between the current repertoire of behaviors of the individual and the tasks that must be performed by it, and include new designs that are presented to the unit. To pociaga za soba koniecznosc kompromisu pomiedzy czynnikami osobowosciowymi a spolecznymi. This entails a compromise between the personality and social factors. Pojecie ja zaczyna sie krystalizowac w okresie dojrzewania i wwczas moze byc ono okreslone w terminach zawodowych. The concept of I begins to crystallize during adolescence, and then it may be defined in terms of trade. Czynniki obiektywne (obiektywnosc osobowosciowych charakterystyk i obiektywnosc spoleczna) odgrywaja coraz wieksza role w rozwoju zawodowym wraz ze wzrostem wieku jednostki. Objective factors (personality characteristics of objectivity and the objectivity of social work) play an increasingly important role in career development with increasing age of the individual. Identyfikacja z rodzicami lub opiekunami wiaze sie z rozwojem rl spolecznych, takze roli zawodowej. Identification with the parents or guardians associated with the development of social roles, and role. Kierunek i tempo przechodzenia jednostki od jednego poziomu rozwoju zawodowego do drugiego jest uzaleznione od jej inteligencji, pozycji spolecznej i ekonomicznej jej rodzicw, potrzeb jednostki, jej zainteresowan i wartosci, a takze od aktualnych warunkw ekonomicznych kraju. Direction and pace of transition from one level of individual professional development to another is dependent on her intelligence, social and economic position of its parent, the needs of individuals, their interests and values, as well as the countrys current economic conditions. Dziedzina zawodowa, ktra jednostka wybiera, zalezy od jej zainteresowan, wartosci i potrzeb, jej identyfikacji z modelami rl zawodowych rodzicw lub opiekunw oraz poziomu jej wyksztalcenia, a takze od samej struktury zawodowej i jej kierunkw oraz dzialalnosci jednostki do przystosowania sie do tej struktury. Professional field, the entity chooses depends on her interests, values and needs, the identification of models of professional roles of parents or guardians and the level of education, as well as from the same occupational structure and its trends, and business units to adapt to this structure. Chociaz kazdy zawd wymaga charakterystycznych dla niego zdolnosci, zainteresowan i cech osobowosciowych jednostki, istnieje jednak w zakresie doboru zawodowego tolerancja pozwalajaca jednostce na wybranie rznych specjalizacji w danym zawodzie, jak rwniez na rznorodnosc w doborze zawodw przez dana jednostke. Although each profession requires a characteristic of his abilities, interests and personality characteristics of individuals, but there is a selection of professional tolerance allows individuals to choose different specializations in the profession, as well as diversity in the choice of occupations by the unit. Satysfakcja zyciowa i zawodowa zalezy od zakresu, w jakim jednostka moze w swojej pracy dac wyraz wlasnym zdolnosciom, zainteresowaniom, wartosciom i cechom osobowosci. Gdy jednostka moze wyrazic w swojej pracy swj psychologiczny charakter, ma ona poczucie samorealizacji, przynaleznosci i stalosci. And professional life satisfaction depends on the extent to which the entity may, in its work to express their own abilities, interests, values and personality characteristics. When an individual can express their work in their psychological nature, it has a sense of fulfillment, belonging and stability. Ma bowiem moznosc wykonywania takiej roli zawodowej, ktra ja inspiruje i motywuje do efektywnej pracy. Is no possibility of implementing such a professional role, which inspires and motivates them to work efficiently. Stopien satysfakcji jednostki wynikajacy z jej pracy jest proporcjonalny do stopnia, w jakim jest ona w stanie dostosowac do tej pracy swoje pojecie ja . The degree of satisfaction resulting from the body of her work is proportional to the degree to which it is able to adapt to the work his concept of I. Praca i zawd stanowia glwny czynnik ksztaltowania sie osobowosci czlowieka i dla wiekszosci ludzi stanowia centrum zainteresowan. Work and occupation are a major factor in shaping the human personality and for most people, a center of interest. DE Super podkresla w swojej teorii znaczenie trzech rodzajw czynnikw wplywajacych na rozwj zawodowy czlowieka, to : czynnik roli, czynniki sytuacyjne i czynniki osobiste. Czynniki roli angazuje strukture ja poprzez procesy modelowania, nasladownictwa i identyfikacji, ktrych zrdlem sa osoby znaczace dla jednostki. DE Supers theory emphasizes the importance of the three types of factors influencing the professional development of man, are: the role of the factor, situational factors and personal factors. Factors involved the role of structure self through processes of modeling, imitation and identification, which are the source of a significant person for the unit. Pierwszymi modelami moga byc rodzice, opiekunowie. The first models can be parents, guardians. Czynniki sytuacyjne sa utozsamiane przez Supera z polozeniem spoleczno-ekonomicznym rodzicw, przekonaniami religijnymi, atmosfera domowa, postawami rodzicw wobec dziecka i wobec dalszej jego nauki, sytuacja ekonomiczna kraju oraz sytuacja miedzynarodowa. Situational factors are identified by the super of the socio-economic position of parents, religious, homely atmosphere, attitudes of parents towards their children and to further his education, economic situation of the country and the international situation. Rozwj zawodowy czlowieka sklada siewedlug niego z pieciu stadiw : rosniecia, eksploracji, stabilizacji, zachowania status quo i schylkowego. Professional development, human rights, according to him consists of five stages: grow, explore, stability, preserve the status quo and decline. Stadia te przebiegaja nastepujaco: These stages proceed as follows: Stadium rosniecia (od urodzenia do 14 roku zycia). Grow stage (from birth to 14 years). Poczatkowo dominuja potrzeby w tej fazie zycia czlowieka oraz fantazja, znaczenie zas zainteresowan i zdolnosci wzrasta wraz w miare uspolecznienia sie dziecka i nabywania doswiadczen. Jest to okres poczatkw formowania sie i rozwoju struktury ja. Initially dominated by the need in this phase of human life and the imagination, the importance of the interests and capacity increases as the childs socialization and acquisition experience. This is the beginning of the period of formation and development of the structure I. Wystepuja w nim nastepujace podokresy: Occur in the following sub-periods: fantazja (4-10 rok zycia), fantasy (4-10 years old), zainteresowania (11-12 rok zycia), interest (11-12 years old), zdolnosci (15-24 rok zycia) capacity (15-24 years old) Stadium eksploracji (15-24 rok zycia). Exploration stage (15-24 years of age). Jest to okres badania samego siebie i wyprbowania rznych rl zawodowych. This is a test for myself, and try different professional roles. Wystepuja w nich nastepujace podokresy: They occur in the following sub-periods: prbowania (15-17 rok zycia); w tym podokresie zainteresowania, zdolnosci, wartosci i korzysci sa przez mlodziez brane lacznie pod uwage i dokonuje ona prbnego wyboru zawodu, trying (15-17 years old) in this sub-period of interest, abilities, values and benefits are taken by young people together would make it a trial and the choice of profession, przejsciowy (18-21 rok zycia); w tym podokresie mlodziez zaczyna miec bardziej realne sady o rzeczywistosci, poniewaz wzrasta zakres jej umiejetnosci i doswiadczen odnoszacych sie do pracy a zwiazanych z odbywanym szkoleniem zawodowym i rozpoczeciem pracy zawodowej, Transition (18-21 years old) in this sub-period young people begin to have more realistic judgments about reality, because it increases the extent of its skills and experience relating to the work and related odbywanym vocational training and starting a career, prby (22-24 rok zycia); w tym podokresie jednostka rozpoczyna prace, ktra wyprbowuje jako prace calego swojego zycia zawodowego. sample (22-24 years old) in this sub-period body starts to work, which tries to work with her entire working life. Stadium stabilizacji (25-44 rok zycia) . Stabilization stage (25-44 years of age). W tym stadium czlowiek, ktry znalazl odpowiednie dla siebie pole pracy zawodowej, usiluje sie na tym polu ustalic. At this stage the man who has its field of work, trying to establish in this field. Czasami we wczesnym okresie tego stadium jednostka podejmuje zmiany pracy. Sometimes in the early stage of the unit takes to change jobs. Podokresami w tym stadium sa: Podokresami at this stage are: doswiadczenie (25 -30 rok zycia) a) experience (25 -30 years of age) stabilizacja (31- 44 rok zycia) b) stabilization (31 44 years old) Stadium zachowania status quo (45-64 rok zycia). Stadium maintain the status quo (45-64 years of age). W tym stadium jednostka czyni starania o utrzymanie swego ustabilizowanego miejsca w swiecie pracy. At this stage the body is making efforts to keep her stabilized place in the world of work. Stadium schylkowe (od 65 roku). Decadent stage (65 years). W tym stadium powstaja nowe role w zwiazku z przechodzeniem z pozycji czynnego uczestnika procesu pracy w pozycje obserwatora. At this stage, new roles in relation to the shifting of the position of the active participant in the process of working in the position of the observer. Wystepuja w nim dwa podokresy: Occur in the two sub-periods: oslabienie (65 70 rok zycia), a) weakness (65 70 years of age) wycofanie sie (70 rok zycia i wiecej) b) withdrawal (70 years and more) Widac wiec z powyzszego, ze proces rozwoju zawodowego czlowieka obejmuje cale zycie, od dziecinstwa do pznej starosci. So you can see from the above that the process of professional development involves human life, from childhood to old age. Wnioski wynikajace z teorii rozwoju zawodowego 4 The conclusions of the theory of professional development Analizujac cechy wsplne dla omwionych teorii rozwoju zawodowego czlowieka mozna stwierdzic, ze: Analyzing the characteristics common to the theories discussed professional development of man can be concluded that: wszystkie teorie rozwoju zawodowego czlowieka okreslaja zespl warunkw wyjasniajacych zachowania zawodowe czlowieka, jego rozwj osobisty i zawodowy; theories of professional development set of conditions that determine human behavior to explain the professional man, his personal and professional development; wszystkie teorie rozwoju akcentuja znaczenie istotnych wlasciwosci czlowieka, stanowiacych psychologiczne kategorie rozwojowe oraz zmiennych spolecznych, charakteryzujacych zrznicowany uklad spolecznego srodowiska czlowieka, theories of development emphasize the importance of the essential human characteristics, which are categories of developmental psychology and social variables that characterize different social system of the human environment, wszystkie teorie ujmuja zawodowy rozwj czlowieka jako przebiegajacy w dluzszym przedziale czasu proces, uwzgledniajacy ilosciowe i jakosciowe zmiany zachodzace w obrebie istotnych wlasciwosci czlowieka (zmiennych psychologicznych), jak i zachodzacych zmian w oddzialywaniach srodowiska spolecznego. theories capture the professional development of man as a runs over the longer time the process takes into account both quantitative and qualitative changes occurring within the essential characteristics of the human (psychological variables), as well as ongoing changes in the social environment impacts. Watkami rznicujacymi poszczeglne teorie rozwoju zawodowego czlowieka : Differentiating the various threads of the professional development of theories of human rights: rodzaj wiodacych zmiennych psychologicznych i zmiennych spolecznego srodowiska jednostki, lezacych u podstaw teoretycznych zalozen poszczeglnych koncepcji rozwoju zawodowego, leading type of psychological variables and social variables of the environment unit of the underlying theoretical assumptions of individual concepts for professional development, uwzglednienie badz nieuwzglednienie stabilnosci w procesie rozwoju zawodowego czlowieka. incorporate or failure to take account of stability in the professional development of man. Do zmiennych psychologicznych uwzglednianych w mniejszym lub wiekszym zakresie przez poszczeglne teorie rozwoju zawodowego wchodzanastepujace jednostki: For the psychological variables included in greater or lesser extent by the various theories of career development include the following elements: inteligencja, intelligence, zdolnosci, capacity, zdolnosci specjalne, special capabilities, zainteresowania, interest system wartosci i postawy wartosciujace, system of evaluation or the values and attitudes, potrzeby, needs, osobowosc, personality, typ temperamentu oraz czynniki emocjonalne, type of temperament and emotional factors, identyfikacja z modelami rl zawodowych (poczucie tozsamosci) identification of models of professional roles (a sense of identity) W odniesieniu do zmiennych charakteryzujacych oddzialywania srodowiska spolecznego mozna podkreslic: With respect to the variables characterizing the impact of the social environment can be emphasized: wplyw wychowania srodowiska rodzinnego, the impact of family environment, education, postawy rodzicielskie, parental attitudes, polozenie spoleczno-ekonomiczne rodzicw, Socio-economic position of parents, procesy modelowania, nasladownictwa i identyfikacji process modeling, imitation and identification Etapy rozwoju zawodowego 5 Stages of professional development Proces rozwoju zawodowego jak wspomniano wielokrotnie wczesniej jest dlugotrwalym procesem i przebiega, mozna przyjac w trzech etapach: The process of professional development as mentioned earlier is often a long process and takes place, can be seen in three stages: okres przed wyborem zawodu period before choosing a profession okres zdobywania wiadomosci i umiejetnosci w wybranym zawodzie (przygotowanie do zadan zawodowych), for acquiring knowledge and skills in your chosen profession (preparation for professional tasks), okres aktywnosci zawodowej. working life. Te trzy okresy aktywnosci zawodowej czlowieka charakteryzuja: These three periods of human activity is characterized by: przygotowanie zawodowe, professional preparation, adaptacja spoleczno zawodowa, adaptation and social professional, identyfikacja i stabilizacja zawodowa, Professional identification and stabilization, sukces zawodowy professional success mistrzostwo w zawodzie mastery in the profession Natomiast czynnikami warunkujacymi i wzbogacajacymi beda: By contrast, determining factors, and will add value: jednej strony warunki materialne i spoleczne pracy zawodowej, on the one hand the material conditions and social work, drugiej strony wlasciwosci osobowe pracownika, a przede wszystkim : zdolnosci i zainteresowania zawodowe, postawa zawodowa, osobowosc zawodowa. on the other hand the personal characteristics of the worker, and above all: the ability and professional interest, professional attitude, professional personality. Procesami dopelniajacymi lub pochodnymi beda: poradnictwo i doradztwo zawodowe oraz selekcja i orientacja zawodowa, po uwzglednieniu materialnych i spolecznych cech srodowiska pracy i poddajacych sie ksztaltowaniu przez caly okres aktywnosci zawodowej wlasciwosci osobowych czlowieka. Complementary processes, or derivatives thereof are: guidance and counseling, and selection and career information, taking into account the physical and social characteristics of the work and surrendering to the shaping of the entire working life of personal property rights. Zainteresowania zawodowe sa to wzglednie trwale sklonnosci do poszukiwania wiadomosci oraz poglebiania wiedzy i ksztaltowania umiejetnosci w okreslonej dziedzinie dzialalnosci ludzi. Professional interest are the relatively stable tendency to search for messages and deepen their knowledge and skills training in a particular area of human activity. Postawa zawodowa to wyksztalcone w toku indywidualnego i spolecznego rozwoju jednostki tendencje do specyficznych, wzglednie trwalych sposobw i form reagowania w okreslonych sytuacja zawodowych. Professional attitude is developed in the course of individual and social development of individual tendencies to specific, relatively permanent ways and forms of response to specific professional situation. Osobowosc zawodowa to zespl (syndrom) cech czlowieka pracy, uformowanych w toku ksztalcenia zawodowego i rozwijajacych sie w czasie pracy zawodowej, ktry zapewnia mu aktywny kontakt z materialnym i spolecznym srodowiskiem pracy i przyczynia sie do jego twrczych przeobrazen. Personality is a professional team (syndrome) characteristics of the working man, formed in the course of training and developing countries during their working lives, which ensures its active contact with the material and social environment of work and contributes to creative transformations. Glwnymi skladnikami osobowosci zawodowej sa: The main components of vocational personalities are: wiedza zawodowa (oglnozawodowa i specjalistyczna), professional knowledge (general vocational and specialized) umiejetnosci, sprawnosci, przyzwyczajenia i nawyki pracy, abilities, skills, habits and work habits, zainteresowania i zamilowania zawodowe, interest and love of training, zdolnosci, uzdolnienia i talenty zawodowe, abilities, talents and professional talents, postawa spoleczno zawodowa, social attitude professional, motywy ksztalcenia sie (doskonalenia ) zawodowego i pracy. education themes (improvement) training and employment. Poradnictwo i doradztwo zawodowe -to procesy celowego oddzialywania na jednostke zblizajaca sie do podjecia decyzji o wyborze zawodu lub pracujaca zawodowo, lecz na uzyskanie coraz lepszych wynikw wlasnej pracy. Guidance and counseling a process of deliberate impact on the unit approaching the decision to choose an occupation or working professionals, but to get better and better results of their own work. Niestety , system poradnictwa w chwili obecnej nastawiony jest w wiekszosci przypadkw na instrumentalne ksztalcenie a nie rozwj czlowieka. Unfortunately, the guidance system at the moment is set in most cases, the instrumental training rather than human development. Selekcja i reorientacja zawodowa -to procesy tylko pozornie uboczne, bo procesy te okazujasieznaczace, zarwno przy wyborze zawodu, jak i przy weryfikacji przydatnosci zawodowej osb pracujacych zawodowo, a takze w wyniku restrukturyzacji gospodarki i czesto z powodw zdrowotnych. Selection and outplacement it processes only the seemingly incidental, because these processes appear to be significant, both in the choice of profession, as well as the verification of the suitability of professional people employed, and as a result of the restructuring of the economy, and often for health reasons. Uwarunkowania rozwoju zawodowego 6 Conditions for professional development Rozwj zawodowy czlowieka ma liczne uwarunkowania, ktre skupiajasiew zyciu zawodowym ludzi w sposb sprzyjajacy ich rozwojowi, badz tez utrudniajacy. Professional development of man has a number of conditions, which are concentrated in the working life of people in a manner conducive to their development, or impeding. Istnieje szereg czynnikw wplywajacych w zasadniczy sposb na rozwj zawodowy czlowieka. There are several factors contributing significantly to the professional development of man. DE Super wyrznia trzy rodzaje czynnikw, a mianowicie: ED Super distinguishes three types of factors, namely: Czynnik roli, ktry wiaze sie z pojeciem ja iz przyjeciem okreslonej roli zawodowej; agent role, which involves the concept of I and the adoption of specific role of the profession; czynniki osobiste, takie jak: uzdolnienia, zainteresowania, wartosci i postawy jednostki cala osobowosc czlowieka personal factors, such as: aptitudes, interests, values and attitudes of individuals the entire human personality czynniki sytuacyjne, wyrazajace polozenie spoleczno ekonomiczne rodzicw, przekonania religijne, atmosfere domowa, postawe rodzicw wobec dziecka, jego nauki i zawodu oraz oglna sytuacje ekonomiczna kraju. situational factors, expressing the position of the socio economic parents, religious, homely atmosphere, the attitude of parents towards their childs education and occupation, and the overall economic situation of the country. Mozna dokonacinnego podzialu uwarunkowanrozwoju zawodowego czlowieka na zewnetrzne i wewnetrzne, obejmujace lacznie osiem rodzajw uwarunkowan. You can make another division of the professional development of human conditions external and internal, including a total of eight types of situations. Saone nastepujace: historyczne, polityczne, ekonomiczne, techniczne, kulturowe, spoleczne, biologiczne, psychologiczne. They are the following: historical, political, economic, technical, cultural, social, biological, psychological. Do najwazniejszych, decydujacych o rozwoju zawodowym wsplczesnego czlowieka naleza uwarunkowania psychologiczne takie jak: The most important, determining the professional development of modern man are psychological such as: zainteresowania i zamilowania, interest and passion, zdolnosci i uzdolnienia kierunkowe, directional capabilities and talents, plany i aspiracje zyciowe i zawodowe, plans and aspirations of life and work, wiedza i doswiadczenie indywidualne, knowledge and experience of the individual, motywy dzialania, motives, postawy i nastawienia do rzeczywistosci, attitudes and attitudes to reality, cechy temperamentu. temperament traits. Do wymienionych wyzej wyznacznikw nalezy dodac jeszcze te, ktre wyrazaja sie na zewnatrz w typowych dla jednostki zachowaniach. To those benchmarks must add those that are expressed outside the typical individual behavior. Psychologiczna wiedze o czlowieku pracujacym mozna ujac w trzy dzialy: Psychological knowledge about the working man can be put into three sections: Wiedza o osobowosci zawodowej, czyli wiedza o tych cechach osobowosci czlowieka pracujacego, ktre sa wazne dla wykonywania danej pracy zawodowej i ktre w tej pracy przejawiaja sie i ksztaltuja. Knowledge of professional personality, ie knowledge of those working for human personality traits that are important for the performance of the work and who work in this exhibit and shape. Wiedza o pracy zywej, to znaczy wiedza o czynnosciach wykonywanych przez czlowieka pracujacego w danym zawodzie lub na danym stanowisku. Knowledge of living labor that is, knowledge of the activities performed by humans working in the profession or on the job. Wiedza o przystosowaniu pracy do czlowieka, czyli wiedza o takich cechach procesu technologicznego, materialw, narzedzi, warunkw pracy oraz systemu organizacji pracy, ktre sa wazne ze wzgledu na ludzkie mozliwosci i potrzeby. Knowledge of adapting the work of man, ie knowledge about the characteristics of technological processes, materials, tools, working conditions and work organization system, which is important because the human capacity and needs. Procesy adaptacyjne w rozwoju zawodowym 7 adaptive processes in the professional development Z uwagi na zachodzace zmiany w sferze spoleczno -gospodarczej i rzeczywistych warunkw pracy, problem adaptacji spoleczno -zawodowej jest ciagle aktualny i wymaga uwagi i wlasciwego podejscia ze strony kierownictwa organizacji (firmy) oraz srodowiska pracowniczego organizacji, bez wzgledu na struktury i formy wlasnosci. Due to the changes in the socio economic and real working conditions, the problem of social adaptation a professional is always up to date and requires attention and appropriate approach from management organizations (companies) and the Staff of the environment organization, regardless of the structure and form of ownership. Duze znaczenie ma takze umiejetnosc organizowania wlasnych dzialan zawodowych, ktrych nadrzednym celem jest oczekiwany efekt rozwoju zawodowego. It is important that the ability of unions to organize their own activities, the overriding objective is the expected effect of professional development. Proces adaptacji oraz jego rezultaty dotyczaszeregu jego aspektw, a mianowicie adaptacji czystozawodowej, spolecznej, psychomotorycznej, fizycznej, uczuciowej, moralnej i kulturowej. The adaptation process and its results include a number of its aspects, namely the adaptation of purely professional, social, psychomotor, physical, emotional, moral and cultural. Wymienione tu procesy adaptacji spoleczno zawodowej wystepuja lacznie i jednoczesnie w tym samym czasie, jako elementy szerszego procesu adaptacji spoleczno zawodowej. These processes of adaptation and social here there are a total professional, and while at the same time, as part of a broader process of social adaptation a professional. Przyjeto wyrzniackilka etapw procesu adaptacji spoleczno -zawodowej: Adopted distinguish several stages in the process of adaptation and social professional: Etap pierwszy polega na opanowaniu przez pracownika stanowiska pracy i osiagnieciu takiego poziomu wykonywania zadan zawodowych, ktry charakteryzuje sie okreslona samodzielnoscia i mozliwoscia uzyskania wysokich zarobkw. The first stage consists in mastering the worker jobs and achieve a level of professional tasks, which is characterized by a definite independence and the possibility of obtaining high wages. Etap drugi to juz uswiadomienie sobie wlasnych mozliwosci oraz swoich powinnosci wobec firmy. Step two it has already become aware of their abilities and their duties to the company. Etap trzeci jest okresem rozpoczynajacej sie identyfikacji zawodowej, a wiec okresem mozliwosci osiagania wysokiej wydajnosci pracy, uzyskiwania zadowolenia z wykonywanej pracy zawodowej, jak rwniez aktywnego wlaczenia sie w procesy decyzyjne. The third stage is the period that begins with the identification of a professional, so the period of their ability to achieve high productivity, obtain job satisfaction of professional, as well as active involvement in decision-making processes. Szybkosc adaptacji spoleczno -zawodowej zalezy od aktywnosci samego pracownika, od jego gotowosci do adaptowania sie, do identyfikowania siez wykonywanym zawodem i firma. The speed of adaptation and social professional depends on the activity of the worker himself, from his readiness to adapt to, to identify with their professional and business. Czynniki stymulujace rozwj zawodowy Factors stimulating professional development Do glwnych czynnosci stymulujacych rozwj zawodowy naleza miedzy innymi: The main activities to stimulate professional development includes: wykorzystanie tresci przedmiotw szkolnego nauczania w ksztaltowaniu , rozwijaniu, poglebianiu i utrwalaniu wiedzy oraz umiejetnosci zwiazanych z samoobsluga, uczeniem sie zawodu, praca i czynnosciami zawodowymi (dotyczy to rwniez tresci wychowania przedszkolnego); use of the content of school subjects taught in shaping, developing, deepening and consolidating the knowledge and skills associated with self-service, learning a profession, work and professional activities (including the content of pre-school education); zachecanie mlodziezy do korzystania z indywidualnych, celowo prowadzonych rozmw z doroslymi na temat czynnosci zawodowych i pracy encouraging young people to benefit from individual, intentionally conducted interviews with adults about their professional activities and work zachecanie mlodziezy do korzystania z tresci publikowanych prac poswieconych decyzjom wyboru zawodu i szkoly oraz zwiazanych z nimi rozlicznych uwarunkowan; encouraging young people to use the content published work related to occupational choice decisions of schools and the many related conditions; zachecanie mlodziezy do poddawania sie badaniom psychologicznym dla okreslenia poziomu swoich mozliwosci rozwojowych. encouraging young people to undergo psychological tests to determine the level of their development opportunities. Szczeglnymi czynnosciami stymulacji rozwoju zawodowego doroslych sa: Specific activities to stimulate the development of professional adults are: doksztalcanie sie w szkolach wyzszego szczebla, w tej samej lub pokrewnej dziedzinie i zawodzie; further training in senior schools, in the same or a related field and profession; doskonalenie sie zawodowe na kursach specjalistycznych coraz wyzszego stopnia oraz samodoskonalenie; improve the training of specialist courses and a progressively higher degree of self-improvement; wysylanie pracownikw na praktyki specjalistyczne do zakladw tej samej lub pokrewnej branzy, ale majacych nowoczesniejszy park maszynowy oraz nowsze technologie wytwarzania; sending workers to the practice of specialized establishments of the same or a related industry, but with more modern machinery and the newer generation technologies; wysylanie pracownikw na dluzsze staze krajowe lub zagraniczne; sending workers for longer internships domestic or foreign; powierzanie pracownikom zadan o szerszym charakterze w stosunku do wykonywanych i wyuczonych, celem rozwijania ich potencjalnych mozliwosci zawodowych; assigning tasks to employees of a broader nature in relation to the performance and learned, to develop their potential career opportunities; prowadzenie stalej, uzasadnionej oceny rozwoju pracownikw; conducting solid, reasoned evaluation of staff development; wysokie nagradzanie tych pracownikw, ktrzy wyraznie wyrzniaja sie swoja aktywnoscia, pracowitoscia solidnoscia wykonywania zadan i czynnosci zawodowych. high reward those employees who are clearly distinguished by their activity, work tasks and the reliability of professional activities. Wnioski koncowe 8 Conclusion Rozwj zawodowy czlowieka zwiazany z dzialaniem, zachowaniem utylitarnym, osiaganiem, prbowaniem, celowoscia, stanowi tylko o polowie naszego zycia , druga zas to bycie stawanie sie, inaczej istnienie, wyrazanie, samorealizacja. Professional development related to human activity, utilitarian behavior, achievement, trying, desirability, is only about half of our lives, while the other is being becoming, otherwise the existence, the expression, self-realization. Przekonanie o wysokiej wartosci, godnosci i niezbednosci ludzkiego dzialania jest silnie zakorzenione w naszej tradycji, zas podzial pracy jest konsekwencja rznorodnosci potrzeb, mozliwosci czlowieka i predyspozycji do wykonywania okreslonych zadan i czynnosci. Convinced of the high value the dignity and necessity of human action is strongly rooted in our tradition, and the division of labor is a consequence of the diversity of needs, human capabilities and suitability to perform specific tasks and activities. Praca we wsplczesnej formie przywiazuje do miejsca wykonywania, uzaleznia od pracodawcy, zmusza do pelnienia okreslonych funkcji i swiadczenia uslug. Working in modern form attached to the place of execution, makes the employer, forced to perform specific functions and services. Dazac do rozwoju zawodowego nalezy brac pod uwage takie zawody i specjalnosci, ktre w najmniejszym stopniu gwalca nasza osobowosc i ograniczaja pragnienie wolnosci osobistej. Striving for professional development should take account of such professions and specialties, which have the least violate our personality and the desire to restrict personal liberty. Nigdy i zaden rodzaj pracy nie byl oceniany jednoznacznie i przez wszystkich tak samo. And never any kind of work was not evaluated explicitly, and by all the same. W pogoni za sukcesem zawodowym nie mozna zapomnieco zabawie i zwiazanej z niawesolosciaa takze o czasie na rozmyslanie, doznania estetyczne i nieumotywowanaaktywnosc. In the pursuit of professional success can not forget the fun and gaiety associated with it and also the time for meditation, aesthetic experience and nieumotywowana activity. Literatura 9 Literature J. Balcerk Socjologia pracy; SGPIS Warszawa 1974 J. Balcerk Sociology of work; Warsaw School of Economics Warsaw, 1974 A. Banka Bezrobotni; PRINT-B Poznan 1992 A bubble Unemployed; PRINT-B, Poznan 1992 RN Bolles Spadochron; FISE Warszawa 1993 RN Bolles Parachute; FISE Warsaw 1993 K. Czarnecki Rozwj zawodowy; IWZZ Warszawa 1985 K. Czarnecki Professional Development; IWZZ Warsaw 1985 CL Cooper Stres pracy; PWN Warszawa CL Cooper work stress, OWN Warszawa K. Dabrowski Trud istnienia; WP Warszawa !986 K. Dabrowski Trud existence; HR Warsaw! 986 S. Gladding Poradnictwo zawodowe; DW Elipsa Warszawa 1992 S. Gladding Coach, DW Ellipse Warsaw, 1992 T. Kielanowski i inni Czlowiek tworzy siebie sam; KAW Gdansk 1985 T. Kielanowski and others Man creates himself alone; KLA Gdansk 1985 T. Kotarbinski Mysli o ludziach i ludzkich sprawach; PAN Ossolineum Kotarbinski Thoughts about people and human affairs; Sciences Ossolineum Wroclaw 1986 Wroclaw 1986 J.Kozielicki Psychologiczna teoria samowiedzy; PWN Warszawa 1986 J. Kozielicki A psychological theory of self-consciousness, OWN Warszawa 1986 T. Luckman Spoleczne tworzenie rzeczywistosci; PIW Warszawa 1983 T. Luckman Social create reality; CIP Warsaw, 1983 B. Lapis U zrdel polskich refleksji nad praca; IW Pax Warszawa 1984 B. Lapis At the source of reflection on the work of Polish, Warsaw, 1984 AND PAX R. Lukaszewicz Do gry czy do przodu; KAW Warszawa 1986 R. Lukaszewicz Top or to the front, the KLA Warsaw 1986 A. Maslow -Motywacje i osobowosc; IW Pax Warszawa 1990 A. Maslow-motivations and personality, AND PAX, Warszawa, 1990 M. Ossowska -Normy moralne; PWN Warszawa 1985 M. Ossowska-moral standards, OWN Warsaw, 1985 J. Strelau Temperament, osobowosc dzialania; PWN Warszawa 1985 J. Strelau temperament, personality measures, OWN Warsaw, 1985 Z. Wiatrowski Pedagogika w zarysie Z. Wiatrowski Romance at a Glance K. Valaskakis i inni Propozycje dla przyszlosci; PWN Warszawa 1988 K. Valaskakis and others Proposals for the future, OWN Warsaw, 1988 Original Polish text: Do wymienionych wyzej wyznacznikw nalezy dodac jeszcze te, ktre wyrazaja sie na zewnatrz w typowych dla jednostki zachowaniach.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Gender Wage Gap And Focus On The Discrimination...

urpose: The purpose is to highlight the gender wage gap and focus on the discrimination against working women Thesis: I intend to assert that women deserve to be paid as much as men for the same job by the same employer. Introduction For the same employer and for the same job in the US, on an average, women get 79 cents for every dollar earned by their male colleagues. This indeed is an alarming figure noting that women have come a long way in attaining education at par with men and are extremely competitive in every field they are working in. It is to be noted that 79.6 cents are calculated on an average basis. The actual figures for each different field of work are different and at least in one category, women get paid no more than 67 cents for every dollar paid for an equivalent job to men. I have researched relevant data and material and am convinced beyond doubts that it is true that gender gap exists and it is time to do away with it. Not only the percentage of women in low in many job categories, their wages as compared to men doing the same job are lower. An example is of their percentage share of jobs is 4% in the natural resources, construction, and maintenance jobs category and as noted earlier, and I have verified it from credible sources that their wages in this category stand at 67 c as compared to a dollar paid to men. I have cross checked these figuresShow MoreRelatedGender Wage Gap And Focus On The Discrimination Against Working Women1792 Words   |  8 PagesEqual Pay for Women Purpose: The purpose is to highlight the gender wage gap and focus on the discrimination against working women Thesis: I intend to assert that women deserve to be paid as much as men for the same job by the same employer. Introduction: l. Working for the same employer and in the same kind of job in the US, if we look at averages, women get paid merely 79 cents against every single dollar paid to their male coworkers. A. 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The gender wage gap has been a real and prevalent thing in our society. Even in the present, women are inclined to get lower salaries than men throughout the world, and most importantly the United States where the constitution says â€Å"all men are created equal.† All salaries are on a weekly basis and percentages are cents a woman earns per dollar a man earns. Though many are currently working to fix the situation, there is much we can do as individuals to stop discrimination in the work forceRead MoreGender And Gender Equality746 Words   |  3 Pagesâ€Å"Behind every great man, there is a great woman.† Gender discrimination is portrayed negatively toward a person, especially of a woman because of her sexual identity. It differentiates from workplace, such as getting less paid for the same profession, to violent crime being committed. On a worldly scale, women are still victims of abuse, rape and violence in modern day societies. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Benefits of Drawing Tools Essay Example For Students

Benefits of Drawing Tools Essay This counterclaimed drawing board, T-square, triangles. An architects or engineers scale, and professional-quality set of determinateness. Now, however, other equipments come into general use, including the drafting machine, parallel- ruling straightedge,technical fountain pen and, of course, the computer. Typical pens used for technicalities are pencils and technical pens. Usually used are mechanical pencils with standard lead thickness. General line widthwise 0. 18 mm, 0. 25 mm, 0. 5 mm and 0. 7 mm. Hardness varies usually from HOB to EH. Softhearted gives a better contrast, but harder legalized more accurate track. Paper or plutocracies do require their own lead types. In most cases, the final drawings redrawn with ink. The pen is generalizations-type technical pen, a marker penchant draws lines of consistent width (so-accelerated marker pen). The pen has an ink container which contains a metal tube, insecticide is a thin metal needle or wire, the soul,link is absorbed between the needle and thebe wall, preventing an excessive amount of ink from being released. The needle has a weight and by waving the pen back and fortieth needle is released and the ink can run. Previously, the tank was filled from an ink bottle, newer styluses use ink arthritis. Chilean width has its CNN stylus. Width of the lines standardized. In Finland, the uncommonly used set is 0. 13 mm, 0. 18 mm, 0. Mm, 0. 35 mm, 0. 50 mm and 0. 70 mm. Thereafter their own styli for tracing paper antistatic, because plastic requires a harder pent. The drawing board is an essentially. Paper Will be attached and kept straightens still, so that the drawing can be done witchcraft. Generally, different kinds of assistance ruler are used in drawing. Outdrawing board is usually mounted to a floodgates in which the board turns to a differentiation, and also its height can be adjustable. Smaller drawing boards are produced portable. Top use. Drafting machine is a device which summonsed to the drawing board, It has rules Ithacan be adjusted by controlling mechanism. There are two main types of apparatus: parallelogram apparatus based on a hindering; and a wagon apparatus which moves monorails mounted to the top of the drawing board. The accuracy of the parallelogram apparatus spinster in the middle of the board, deconsecrating the edges, whereas a wagon apparatus a constant accuracy over the whole board. Parallelogram apparatus are often equipotent a ballast, with the intention to make device eighth to handle. The drawing-head of a wagon apparatus slides on bearings in vertical trail, which in turns is moving along irrational, top-mounted rail. Both apparatuses do have a movable drawing-head and trestles attached to it so that the angle Beethoven rules may be adjusted. Drawing apparatus enables estranging of parallel lines over the paper. Adjustable angle between the rulers lets the lines to be drawn in varying angles. Rulers also be used as a support for specialization rulers and letter templates. The rules replaceable and they can be for examples-rules. Drawing apparatus has flavored drawing board mounted parallel ruled a pantograph, a device copying the ratios. Rulers used in technical drawing regularly made Of polystyrene. Rulers come into types according to the design of triggered. Straight edge can be used with lead andante pens, whereas when technical pen is seethe edge must be grooved to prevent outspread of the ink. The basic tool in technical drawing sis triangular set square, either 90/60/30 or/AS/45 degree. Also in use are continuously adjustable 0-90 disproportionate and a separate T- square straightedge which can use the edge outdrawing board as a support. Architects scale is a scaled, three-edged ruler which has six different salesclerks to its sides. A typical combination tribulations details is 1:20, 1:50, 1:100, and 1:ASS, There are their own rulers for-zoning work as well as for inch units. .ue0aca896d1d47cf1d94e5bdde8765f20 , .ue0aca896d1d47cf1d94e5bdde8765f20 .postImageUrl , .ue0aca896d1d47cf1d94e5bdde8765f20 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ue0aca896d1d47cf1d94e5bdde8765f20 , .ue0aca896d1d47cf1d94e5bdde8765f20:hover , .ue0aca896d1d47cf1d94e5bdde8765f20:visited , .ue0aca896d1d47cf1d94e5bdde8765f20:active { border:0!important; } .ue0aca896d1d47cf1d94e5bdde8765f20 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ue0aca896d1d47cf1d94e5bdde8765f20 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ue0aca896d1d47cf1d94e5bdde8765f20:active , .ue0aca896d1d47cf1d94e5bdde8765f20:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ue0aca896d1d47cf1d94e5bdde8765f20 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ue0aca896d1d47cf1d94e5bdde8765f20 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ue0aca896d1d47cf1d94e5bdde8765f20 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ue0aca896d1d47cf1d94e5bdde8765f20 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ue0aca896d1d47cf1d94e5bdde8765f20:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ue0aca896d1d47cf1d94e5bdde8765f20 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ue0aca896d1d47cf1d94e5bdde8765f20 .ue0aca896d1d47cf1d94e5bdde8765f20-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ue0aca896d1d47cf1d94e5bdde8765f20:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: A picture of my wife EssayToadstools rulers are made of plastic, formerly of hardwood. A pocket-sized version is listenable, with scales printed on flexibilities stripes. A parallel ruler is a movable rulers on the drawing board. Its angle statisticians and with it the horizontal lines can beastly be drawn all over the board. It is alehouse as a support for protractor and letterpresss. The parallel ruler is collectedness to the board with strings, washbowl the ruler to be positioned in a smallness. For drawing of curves, rulers of various designs are used. Old curved rulers and parrot rulers or a curved ruler the shape which can be modified. Templates contain pre-dimension less in the right scale to accurately draw symbol or sign. Letter templates Will deliveries text, as well number as letter characters. For drawing circles and circle-arcs, circumnavigates are used, containing a suitable set Of holes in certain dimensions with suitable sideshows in them. Models are also available brother geometric shapes such as squares and forwarding ellipses. Drafting paper is silk. Eke nontransparent. It is primarily suitable for pencils felt tip pens. Pencil marks can obstructed to some extent with an eraser. Tracing paper is polished sandwich-like aesthetics is suitable for lead and pens. Eraser recapping is used for correcting. Transcendentalists films are commonly used inventorying. They have higher mechanistically than translucent paper, Drawing inks can be divided into outgrowths: soot inks and plastic inks Soot ink suits in drawing to Paper and most traditionalistic.

Saturday, April 18, 2020

The Impact of Audience Fragmentation on Public Service Broadcasting

Introduction Over the past few decades, media audiences have experienced fragmentation in many countries such as the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia partly because of increase in media choices. Audience fragmentation and media polarization are common in today’s generation dominated by technology and the new media.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Impact of Audience Fragmentation on Public Service Broadcasting specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Audience fragmentation is caused by media proliferation, which makes the broadcast opportunities more diverse posing a challenge to media providers and advertisers. The media proliferation means that the media content, once a preserve of specific outlets such as public broadcasters, is now available in all platforms, which results to a more participatory and fragmented audience. While this may be good for democratic development, it presents major ch allenges that affect mainstream media financially (Benkler 32). Society and audiences in many countries are changing in line with the developments in media technology, the new media, and the internet. In Australia, the audience is increasingly becoming fragmented particularly with regard to television viewing. In 2009, about 84% of all Australian households were audience of free-t-air TV, which, however, was shared with three other major stations (FreeTV 12). Audience fragmentation in Australia has arisen due to increase in the number of commercial channels. By the end of 2010, the number of free-to-air channels grew sharply with the licensing of six additional government-sponsored and commercial television channels further contributing to audience fragmentation (FreeTV 9). Public broadcasters have responded quite positively to the changing media environment. Radio stations, television networks and other content providers have rapidly shifted their services to involve the internet. At the same time, public broadcasting has adopted more personalized services and products to meet the diverse needs of the consumer in a fragmented society (Murdock 54). Despite the stiff competition occasioned by media proliferation, public broadcasting is best suited in delivering and receiving content that informs, entertains, and educates a fragmented society through the new media and the internet in line with its original mission and therefore public broadcasting is still necessary even in the face of audience fragmentation and proliferation of media outlets.Advertising Looking for essay on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Principles of Public Broadcasting The commercial broadcasters often offer programs that propagate their commercial interests. In contrast, public broadcasters’ mission is to offer a balanced programming that focuses on public and governance affairs while being politically ne utral and non-commercial (Tomaselli 31). However, with the recent advancements in technology and the emergence of the new media, which has led to audience fragmentation, public broadcasters appear to compromise their initial mission. Among the principles of public broadcasting is its quest to be universally accessible and have a universal appeal (Tomaselli 34). By integrating technology like digital Audio broadcasting (DAB) into public broadcasting, public broadcasters have been able to increase their reach in most countries. In Australia, DAB digital radio is broadcasted in five major metropolitan areas with the community radio sector shifting to digital broadcasting to increase accessibility (Free TV 12). Public service broadcasting should be available to everyone regardless of his or her geographical location. In Australia, a digital community radio was launched on May 2011, to offer a broad range of digital content and increase accessibility of public broadcasting (CBAA). Unlike commercial broadcasting, which is governed by commercial and advertising interests, public service broadcasting plays a crucial role in dissemination of unbiased information to the public. It offers a forum for public debate on issues affecting the people, which enable people to make informed choices. In this way, public service broadcasting allows people to express their opinions on contentious issues and in the process fosters cohesion in the society. Public broadcasting also empowers citizens owing to its programs that cover governance and political issues (Tomaselli 39). This phenomenon enhances the quality of life of individuals and social groups can participate in issues affecting their economic and social lives. Public broadcasting, therefore, offers actual and unbiased information, which promotes free opinion formation as compared to other commercial broadcasters and this trend makes public broadcasting necessary in the society even in the wake of audience fragmentation and media proliferation. Public service broadcasting also takes into account the interests of the minority within the society with an intention of promoting social cohesion. The central issue, however, is whether public broadcasting can be detached from government interests given its source of funding.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Impact of Audience Fragmentation on Public Service Broadcasting specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Public broadcasters are expected to exercise independence from political interference or commercial interests. However, absolute independence is often difficult in practice. In addition, the public broadcasters need to emphasize on quality programming instead of multi-channeling, which is common in commercial broadcasting to support the programs. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) increased the number of channels, which has affected the quality of its programming and stretche d its resources (Frangopoulos Para. 2). Public Broadcasting and the New Digital technologies The technological developments have made it easier for both the media providers and the users to move across the media platforms. Digital technologies have led to the new media commonly referred to as â€Å"social media†, which also has contributed to audience fragmentation. These include social networks like Face book, video sharing media such as You Tube and search engines such as Google and iTunes (Webster 371). The social media, unlike the traditional media, aim at increasing their popularity and in the process attract more audience. To achieve popularity, many of the social media compete for audience by offering attractive user-friendly options to attract the attention of the users. Unfortunately, the attention of the public is limited and scarce. The focus of the new media is to catch the attention of the audience as the prerequisite for attaining their social and economic objec tives (Davenport and Beck 65) and this has led to the proliferation of the social media further contributing to audience fragmentation. However, integration of public broadcasting and social media allows the public to debate on national issues more effectively. The media users also contribute to audience fragmentation as they usually choose the media products they prefer. The user preferences are reflective of their attitudes, their needs, or tastes. The audience can opt to remain loyal to a particular genre provided by a given media or sample a diverse range of media genres. Users preferring a particular genre especially with regard to news lead to a highly focused audience known as â€Å"gated communities† or â€Å"enclaves†, which lead to audience fragmentation (Iyengar and Hahn 112). The users are expected to understand the media environment in which they operate.Advertising Looking for essay on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, the proliferation of the media outlets especially the digital media makes perfect understanding of the digital marketplace almost impossible. In addition, the diversity of the media products makes informed user choice difficult. Users cannot even be sure of which brand would provide the desired gratification and therefore have to sample different media outlets. Public broadcasting offers better means through which the public perceives and addresses public affairs through digital technology and the new media forms, partly because public broadcasting, owing to its focus on public affairs, enjoys a higher level of public trust than the commercial broadcasting. In addition, public broadcasting focuses on universal accessibility and therefore, the new technologies offer a platform to increase its reach in line with its mission. Forms of Media Fragmentation The proliferation of media outlets like channels and websites or media products as music or movies play a significant role i n audience fragmentation termed media-centric fragmentation. Under media-centric fragmentation, the media providers are arranged from the most popular to the least popular using data derived from monthly visitors or total sales reached in a month conducted by independent providers (Anderson 54). In media-centric fragmentation, the audiences are spread across many media outlets. In Australia, rationalization of the audience is high and continues to increase because of restrictions that prevent multi-channeling. By 2009, free-to-air TV (FTA) had an estimated audience of 84%, which it shared with three other commercial TV stations (FreeTV 16). In 2011, three national TV channels, three more channels that are commercial and Pay TV have entered the market. However, government restrictions prevent multi-channeling involving FTA broadcasting (FreeTV 13). This has contributed to audience fragmentation as users and advertisers migrate to other media including the new media. Despite the conti nued fragmentation of the audience, public broadcasting remains a reliable means of promoting social cohesion while promoting diversity of culture. The public broadcasting works is even more useful in a fragmented society as the individual needs of social groups and community public service broadcasters address minorities more effectively. Fragmentation at micro-level involves the distribution of each individual’s use of media across many providers. People become specialized in their patterns of media use by becoming concentrating on a certain class of media products or media outlets that deliver the desired services. In addition, under the micro-level fragmentation, the characteristics of the audience e.g. age or gender is common. The audience relies on subsets of the available media, at a micro-level, on a daily basis to obtain relevant information in the complex media environment. The public broadcasters through its range of educative and informative programs can attract a ll different segments of audience as they discuss political, economic, and social issues affecting their lives. Another form of audience fragmentation relies on a macro-level way of perceiving audiences based on the media they use. This approach can identify the audience for a particular media outlet and by doing so; it is easier to determine how the public attention is spread across the media environment. The macro-level fragmentation can evaluate channel loyalty and audience flows within the media environment (Napoli 67). According to Webster, analysis of the media environment which indicates that users do not spend a lot of time in gated communities but rather sample a variety of media products to satisfy their needs (378). The Future of Audience Fragmentation In spite of audience fragmentation caused by interactions between media providers and users, public broadcasting remains an important source of media products. According to Webster, most media users do not spend much time i n niches or gated communities nor does typical users consume particular media products only, rather most of them range widely across the media outlets as they search desired media products (381). The audiences may appear highly fragmented but they do not stay long within the niches or gated communities. Majority of the users have rather varied media repertoires, which are specialized subsets of media that provide desired media products at particular times. This implies that the micro-level and macro-level fragmentation have no much impact on the consumption patterns of the audience. In fact, the public prefers to associate and debate public affairs. The public broadcasting offers an ideal platform for citizens to be informed on national issues and contributes to national development. Moreover, despite relying on different media repertoires, users can still get the same products and the traditional media remains a preferred source of quality media content. The popularity of the media providers is fundamental to the future distribution of audiences across the media environment. Anderson beliefs that the many media offerings or choices offered would contribute to audience fragmentation in the future (181). Frank and Cook, on the other hand expect that high concentration of the audiences will continue to be experienced in the digital media as compared to other forms of media (56). Moreover, in the digital media, because of differential quality of the digital media products, there will be less audience fragmentation. Due to the diversity of the digital media products and the social nature of the digital media, it is likely that the digital media will become more popular than the traditional media. Audience fragmentation is not likely to be high in digital media as the quality of media products is not normally uniform. Assuming the prices are fairly the same, the audience choices would gravitate towards the digital media that offers high quality choices. As Caves no tes, most content providers and the users alike tend to prefer high quality media products if they can afford them (33). Digital media provides a platform for providers and the users to access high quality services on demand, which effectively reduces the available choices and concentrates the audiences around the best media options thus reducing audience fragmentation. The social nature of the digital media consumption makes digital media more desirable. Through social media networks like Facebook, You Tube, and Twitter among others, few programs, or sports events contribute to live audience debates on various topics, which the public broadcasting service can use to propagate its mission. The social networks also allow simultaneous media use especially alongside television viewing. Twitter and Facebook allow conversations on a virtual space, which concentrates the audience on these networks as they discuss topics they find noteworthy. Since the digital media products are more diver se, the users rely on recommendation systems that guide their consumption. While the media recommendation systems may vary across the media environment, they are mostly directed at promoting the popular media products or media outlets relying on the information on what other have chosen (Webster 389). Nevertheless, the digital products, the media outlets, or their content only varies slightly. The major concern about audience fragmentation is its economic impact on advertising as companies find it difficult to reach the intended market due to audience fragmentation. Contrary to these concerns, fragmentation, and the large number of media channels actually allows practitioners to reach a large number of audiences and can even provide access to additional audience. In order to maximize reach, advertising should be carried out across multiple media channels (Ephron 19). A study conducted by Newstead to establish the strategies of maximizing reach to the Australian market, found out tha t, extending the media coverage coupled by distribution over a wide range of media during advertising increases reach efficiency of between 2-46% (Newstead 76). Despite the proliferation of media outlets, the media outlets offer more or less similar content, which makes public broadcasting even more reliable as a source of information. Conclusion It is evident that the proliferation of commercial media outlets has influenced public broadcasting in many ways. However, public broadcasting in many countries remains the appropriate means of promoting public interaction. Due to competition from commercial broadcasters, public broadcasting has adopted different broadcasting methods involving introduction of diverse programs tailored for specific social groups, more interactive programs that make use of the new media, and introduction of appealing media content. In addition, public broadcasting has made use of digital technologies to promote accessibility in line with its mandate. All this has translated to public broadcasting playing an important role particularly with regard to promoting social cohesion. In conclusion, public broadcasting is still necessary even in the wake of recent proliferation of media outlets and audience fragmentation. Works Cited Anderson, Craig. Free: The future of a radical price. New York: Hyperion, 2009. Benkler, Yunus. The wealth of networks: How social production transforms  Markets and Freedom. New Haven, CN: Yale University Press, 2006. Caves, Richard. Switching channels: Organization and change in TV broadcasting.  Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005. Community Broadcasting of Australia (CBAA). â€Å"Sidney Community Radio Digital Launch†. 2011. 3/6/2011. Web. Davenport, Tim, and Beck, Julie. The attention economy: Understanding the new  Currency of business. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 2001. Ephron, Eric. â€Å"More Weeks, Less Weight: The Shelf-Space Model of Advertising.†Ã‚  Journal of Advertising Research 23.1 (1995): 18-23. Frangopoulos, Angie. ABC’s purpose lost in 24-hr transmission, 2010. Web. Frank, Rodger, and Cook, Peter. The winner-take-all society: Why the few at the  Top get so much more than the rest of us. New York: Penguin, 1995. FreeTV. Industry Report: 2009 Year in Review. FreeTV Australia. 2010:9-16. Iyengar, Steve, and Hahn, Kim. â€Å"Red media, blue media: Evidence of ideological Selectivity in media use.† Journal of Communication 59.1 (2009):110-115. Murdock, Grace. Citizens, consumers, and public culture. London: Routledge, 1992: Napoli, Peter. Audience evolution: New technologies and the transformation of media  Audiences. New York: Columbia University Press, 2011. Newstead, Kim. Best-practice media scheduling a practical application. Adelaide: University of South Australia. 2010. Tomaselli, Robin. â€Å"Public Service Broadcasting in the Age of Information Capitalism.†Ã‚  Communicare 8.2 (1989): 27-41. Webster, Gor don. â€Å"Beneath the veneer of fragmentation: Television audience Polarization in a multichannel world.† Journal of Communication 55.2 (2005): 366-389. This essay on The Impact of Audience Fragmentation on Public Service Broadcasting was written and submitted by user Jaylen Ochoa to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.